Wednesday, January 30, 2013


By: Rachel Botsman
Access the sights listed at the end of the text, check them out and form an opinion as to how they function and what their purposes are. Think about potential benefits and drawbacks. If you are doing this as a class, discuss your views. Then check out the following video and take notes:
1.       What exactly has boosted the importance of people’s online history to such an extent in the modern world?
2.       In which kinds of fields is a good online reputation of primary importance?
3.       Why did Atwood and Spotsky create Stack Overflow?
4.       How does Stack Overflow work?
5.       What benefit do visitors to the site derive aside from getting questions answered?
6.       What is the advantage of Stack Overflow reputation scores for business?
7.       In what additional way can reputation information be used?
8.       How does Wonga decide how trustworthy people who apply for credit are?
9.       King’s purpose in establishing Movenbank was both to …………………………………… and to ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
10.   What is CRED?
11.   King believes that people will be willing to open up their social data if they accept the fact that …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
12.   What does “his hypothesis” in the phrase “In order to prove his hypothesis” refer to?
13.   What was the brain’s reaction to both positive evaluation and financial reward in Sadato’s experiment?
14.   What conclusion can be drawn from the above?
15.   What benefit does reputation provide in the case of e-marketing?
16.   Chesky says “People will leverage their Airbnb reputation in ways that we can’t yet imagine”. Why will they do this according to him?
17.   What is the purpose of Legit?
18.   What two hurdles will companies like Legit have to overcome?
19.   How does Legit differ from PeerIndex,  Kied and Klout?
20.   What two problems will the first influence and reputation aggragators have to face?
21.   How will the World Wide Web enable us to get a complete picture of a person’s reputation in the distant future?
22.   The above will be possible because everyone will have a complete ………………………………………
Use the information in the text and the notes from any listening you do to discuss the benefits as well as the problems this new way of building reputations will bring.
This highly topical issue is fuelling an emerging sector with many online companies being set up to take part in it. It should go very well with the modern tech savvy youth who is an internet animal if you like. I am sure they will be able to predict parts of the text as well as some of the potential pitfalls. I can see it going very well.
1.       Our ability to capture data from across an array of digital services; the next sentence is support. You should learn to distinguish between the main idea (the answer) and its expansion.
2.       In fields where trust is fractured
3.       To reinvent the way people find jobs through online reputation. We realized there was a need …won’t do because this sentence on its own does not give a clear answer, it requires additional explanation.
4.       Programmers post detailed technical questions and receive answers from other programmers.
5.       They earn a reputation
6.       (If they read the writings of someone on Stack Overflow) they immediately know if they are a skilled programmer or not.
7.       To look forward rather than back.
8.       By crunching an average 8000 pieces of data.
9.       Use technology to personalize the banking experience and to reinvent the traditional risk model.
10.   It is both an individual’s traditional credit score and aspects such as their level of community involvement, social reputation and trust weighting.
11.    It is capital they can put to good use.
12.   That good reputation is a reward
13.   The stratium lit up.
14.   Our brains neurologically compute personal reputation to be as valuable as money.
15.   It is the ultimate output of how much a community trusts you. OR: It allows you to bring over some of the history of who you are as a person whether it is in the digital or the real world.
16.   Because they believe their hard earned online status should be portable. To transfer reputation data between verticals won’t fit because that is just a paraphrasing of the question.
17.   To create a universal metric for a person’s trustworthiness.
18.   Coming up with algorithms that can’t be easily gamed or polluted by trolls; convincing online market places not just to open their vaults but create a standardized format for how they frame and collect reputation data.
19.   The latter three measure social influence.
20.   The significant challenge of pioneering the use of reputation data in a responsible way; transporting reputation, which is largely contextual.
21.   We will be able to perform a Google or Facebook like search to see a picture of a person’s behavior in many different contexts.
22.   Personal reputation dashboard.

Thursday, January 24, 2013


At the end of 2010 and the beginning of 2012, a series of demonstrations and protests began to rise in the Arab World.These protests have become known as the Arab Spring or Arab awakening.The first demonstration began in Tunusia in 2010.This demonstration turned into rebellion and spilled over into other neighboring countries such as Yemen, Egypt and Syria.The rebellion in Egypt had some internal and external causes.
To begin with internal causes, Egypt has had a massive income gp througout Mubarek’s regime and citizens have experienced a very difficult economic and social situation.Poverty, rising food prices, inflation, human rights violations, high unemployment and corruption were the main phenomena Egypt was facing.These are clearly the root causes of the original uprising and the Egyptian revolution. Unemployment is a majör source of economic insecurity and  destabilization of any political system.Even though many states have arrived  at a very high level of democracy and political rights,t he Arab regions such as Egypt still suffer from bad political systems based on corruption, the lack of free elections and freedom of speech and religious fundamentalism.All of these are the internal causes of revolt in Egypt.
Secondly, it is important  not to underestimate the role of external factors such as technology and social networks like facebook and twitter, which facilitated the communication between protestors. Therefore, the government in Egypt shut down the internet during the last protest against Mubarek so as to limit communication.In addition to this, to understand better the January 25 revolution in Egypt we have to focus on the relations between Israel and Egypt.Egypt has ensured Israel’s stability and security thanks to Mubarek so Egypt become a strategic ally of Israel as well as Israel’s primary supplier of energy.Thus, the Lebanese victory against Israel gave more reasons and courage to the Egyptions to demonstrate against their regime.
         To sum up, the rebellion in Egypt is caused by external and intenal factors.As a result of this, the Egyptians are changed and they will not accept the undemocratic politics of their country’s past.Should they be forced to, they will revolt again to protect their rights and claims.
DİLBER BAĞSIZ  Remedial 2013  

Wednesday, January 23, 2013


“Those words aren’t yet a cliché on TV crime dramas, but security experts agree that it’s only a matter of time before smartphones become the smart person’s weapon of choice.”
By: Charles C. Mann
Published: Vanity Fair; December 19, 2012;
Level of difficulty: ***
Note to the student: This is an easy level *** so you may want to make this one of the first ones you do.
·         For what purposes are smartphones currently used ?
·         For what purposes could they be used in the future to help mankind?
·         For what evil purposes could they be used?
1.       Why did Barnaby Jack forbid photographs and leave out details of his research?
2.       How exactly had Barnaby Jack upgraded the current method of checking and adjusting pacemakers and defibrillators?
3.       If Jack’s device were to be used on an actual patient, what would the result be?
4.       Why exactly did Jack “direct an implantable insulin pump to deliver a lethal dose” and “hack an ATM to spray out bills”?
5.       Jack envisions smartphones being used for …………………………………………………………………………….
6.       The major advantage of using smartphones to monitor patients is that ……………………………… ; the major disadvantage is that ………………………………………………………………………………………………
7.       What proof is offered to support Jack’s view that hackers would use this new system to harm individuals? Be specific.
8.       Which phrase in the paragraph beginning “Smartphones taking control” best summarizes the paragraph?
9.       What is the function of the paragraph beginning “The embrace of a new technology”?
10.   TBMS has been installed in all new cars since 2007 in order to prevent ………………………………….
11.   What surprising comparison does the writer make in the paragraph beginning “By itself…”?
12.   A security research team from Intertrust technologies describes today’s cars as  “full time residents of cyber space scarcely distinguishable from any other computational node, P.C., tablet or smartphone” because ………………………………………………………………………………………………
13.   What conclusion can be drawn from the information concerning the time pressure monitoring system?
14.   Read the experiments conducted by researchers from The University of Washington and The University of California. What was their purpose in conducting the experiments? There are two answers; find both.
15.   What makes smart homes just as vulnerable as regular houses? The fact that……………………..
16.   The smart meters will save time and have environmental benefits but will also give companies the opportunity to ……………………………………………………………………………….
17.   Researchers at the university of Massachusett  were able to make some surprising discoveries thanks to smart meters. What were they?
18.   Smart meters could black out entire neighborhoods, effect central controls and even kill people because ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
19.   What grave mistake is everyone making by hurrying to computerize everything in a home?
20.   The fact that currently very few people could in fact carry out hacking on the scale described in the text should not be a reason to ignore them because…………………………………………………….
21.   Currently, there are A.E.D’s in many public places. What enables them to be hacked? What is the most devastating effect of the hacking?
22.    Read the paragraph beginning “In a way…” What conclusion can be drawn from this paragraph?
23.   Now read the following paragraph carefully. What conclusion can we draw from this paragraph?
24.   How easy is it to launch an attack on medical device’s software? How do you know?
25.   Which paragraphs form the conclusion of the text? How do you know?
Write a four paragraph essay discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the potential uses of smartphones discussed in the text. It is suggested you seek out some related videos first and take notes.
The Advantages that are stated in the text are as follows:
Saving time, being environmentally friendly, saving effort, efficiency, being potentially life saving
The disadvantages that are stated in the text are as follows:
Being easy to hack and having potentially dangerous and even fatal consequences

This futuristic text outlining the potential future uses and dangers of smartphones, probably the most widely popular gadget on the planet at the moment, should be intriguing to the current generation. I have a lot of questions because this blog is designed for self study mainly and I need to make sure nothing is missed.
1.       He was (so) worried about the implications of his research.
2.       Jack had discovered how to signal an ICD from 30 feet away.
3.       He would die. The fatal episode would be blamed on malfunction is an interpretation of the result; not the result as far as the patient goes, which is what the question is all about.
4.       Because trouble making is what he is paid to do at 10Active. He is a man who is quite literally looking for trouble won’t do because it gives the impression that he is your common sociopath.
5.       The manipulation of medical devices.
6.       Doctors can alter treatment regimens remotely; the new devices could put the management of an individual’s internal organs in the hands of every hacker, online scammer and digital vandal on Earth.
7.       Anonymous vandals inserted flashing animated images into an epilepsy foundation online forum triggering…
8.       The spread of networking technology into every aspect of life.
9.       It is a bridge paragraph signaling the start of a new section of the text.
10.   (A new form of crime) carjacking by tire.  The word “prevent” signals that you need something negative and TBMS is a safety device. Nothing else will fit. Tire problems won’t fit because this device doesn’t prevent them; it just reports them.
11.   Boeing’s new 787 Dreamliner makes do with about 18 million lines of code.
12.   Many of the overlapping functions can be activated from outside. This is a tough question. One point: the rest of the paragraph is support; a long list of examples all of which you can’t write.
13.   Every car tire is in effect a homing device and people 130 feet from an automobile can talk to it through its tires.
14.    To prove that TPMS systems are not reliable or safe; there was nothing to stop them. These two answers cover all the experiments, not just one.
15.   They are connected to the internet; the computer systems in the house are also a point of entry for online intruders.
16.   Cut power to non paying customers at the flick of a switch.
17.   How many were in each dwelling, when they were using their computers, coffee machines, toasters, what movies people were watching.
18.   The smart meter is vulnerable to viruses, worms and other internet perils. Lack of firewalls won’t do!
19.   They are not thinking about possible risks.
20.   It is in the nature of software to get easier to use and more widely available.
21.   The fact that they are updated with windows based software on a USB stick; taking over nearby hospital computers
22.   When staffers are careless, hospital security problems can be difficult to fix.
23.   Even when staffers aren’t careless hospital security problems can be difficult to fix
24.   Vey easy. You simply have to call them repeatedly.
25.   The last two. They go beyond the content of the text and reach out to the future.

Sunday, January 20, 2013


Tetris is a simple mechanical game which draws the attention of millions of people of all ages. Although this game was launched on the World in 1986 and many developed games have appeared since that time, it is still  indispensable for  many people;  this is because tetris is a compelling game that causes The Tetris Effect and also has some benefits in people's view.

Playing tetris causes The Tetris Effect by renewing the blocks and creating addiction in a person who has played the game at least 5 minutes. This situation occurs because human beings like tidying something up or putting some objects in order as seen from tetris. Therefore, many mechanical games are based on tidying up such as tetris, snooker, or puzzle.

Tetris doesn't teach us much,;however, it focuses our attention on our aims. According to psychological research, playing tetris with its Tetris Effect helps mentally sick people that suffer from the bad memories they have gotten through experience. When these people play tetris in addition to their psychological treatment, the game can affect  them like a cure that makes them stop  considering the bad memories. Moreover,the  tetris effect can be turned into  an assistant that helps people to pick up positive ideas and put the ideas in order by giving priority to the positive one.

One of the secrets behind the incredible success of tetris is its ability to create  the Zeigarnik Effect on the players. Zeigarnik Effect is a psychological phenomenon and one of the reasons that make people  addicted to tetris. For example, many students at boun study hard for the quarter exam. They memorize all the words they have learnt and scan all grammar rules again and again. However, after the exam all this information is forgotten immediately just because of Zeigarnik Effect.

The Zeigarnik Effect is based on incomplete tasks which stick in the memory. Likewise,  tetris attracts a person’s interest by creating new different shaped blocks,so this unfinished task keeps the person’s attention on the game. It continuously throws the blocks and the player tries to direct them by using the control keys. Therefore, the player is focused on the unfinished situation and cant give it up easily.

Shawn Achor, a professor of Harvard University,claims that playing tetris improves our ability to concentrate and  it also makes it easier to realize our aims. However, being in a tetris competition with someone or forgetting all the real World when playing tetris can be irritating for the other people around you.

Saturday, January 19, 2013


            A gene is a molecular unit of every living organism for instance each cell in the human body contains about 32.000 what are genes?
            A gene is something which carries information that goes toward determinig your traits such as eye color, blood type and some of your physical characteristics.Hovewer recent studies show that genes do not just determine your physical characteristics for example the study of genopolitics. Scientists work with identical and freternal twins ,and studies show that identical twins (who have more similar genes than fraternal twins ) have more similar political views. Also scientists think genes affect our personality and thinking.In conclusion,  genes affect people’s behaviors , personality ,views ,and physical character.
            The result of the genetic studies bring new questions ; can we encode gens? can we learn people’s future choises?  Can we change people’s personality or political views by encodig genes?  Firstly, scientific research and experiments show that we can encode genes and we can change something which depends on genes such as producing chickens with four wings . Hovewer, it is not healthy and it can  cause cancer because scientists can not encode successfully like in nature; maybe they  will be able to encode successfully in the future.Secondly , scientists say: “some simple traits –like eye color- are directly controlled by a small number of genes .But most things like political views – have no sole genetic cause.” So we can learn simple things by analyzing genes but we can not learn personality or political views yet and because we do not exactly know how genes impact our views either we can not change people’s views by encodig genes.
            To sum up,genetics is a new science and it is like a dark room.We can not know what will happen when we discover the secret of genes.It can benefit us like producing legs or arms for people who do not have legs or arms.It could also bring diseasters like cancer.In my opinion, scientific research has to proceed carefully and before trying new things on people, they have to be sure   not to cause bad results.
Halil İbrahim  Aydın; Preint; Jan. 2013


The recent school shooting in Newtown and the horrific death of 27 children sent shock waves through US society and prompted the administration to act. President Obama set out a list of proposals after consulting with vice president Joe Biden who had been working with both sides. A similar shooting in Scotland some years ago prompted the UK government to introduce some of the toughest gun laws in Europe; the same is true for Norway. Both countries have since witnessed a sharp decrease in gun crime. Before studying the proposals, google the following:
·         Piers Morgan on gun laws; access the videos, listen and make notes
·         Barack Obama on gun laws; access the videos, listen and take notes
·         Go to  and read the following: US gun debate: Guns in numbers
·         Go to  and ; read about the new proposals concerning gun laws and reactions to them.
When your research is complete, consider the points below and any others you can think of to write a problem solution essay.
Obama’s key proposals are as follows:
·         Reintroduce an expired ban on “military-style” assault weapons
·         Limit ammunition magazines to ten rounds
·         Background checks on all gun sales
·         Ban on possession and sale of armour -piercing bullets
·         Harsher penalties for gun traffickers, especially unlicensed dealers who buy guns for criminals
·         Approve the appointment of the head of the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and explosives
·         More focus on mental health issues
·         Changing mind sets

Thursday, January 17, 2013


Prepared by: Özge Çağlar Aksoy and her class
Uniforms are worn in many walks of life such as factories, the army, the police, hospitals, religious establishments and the like but they are also widely worn in schools. However, policies vary greatly around the world: in the US, to the best of my knowledge, there are no school uniforms in primary or secondary schools, in the UK there are uniforms in secondary school but not in primary school, in east Asia – Korea, Japan and China – uniforms are the norm all through school. All this proves that there is a lot to say on both sides. Before moving on to the essay, it is suggested that you do some research and the easiest way to start is with Google. On googling the topic: "school uniforms, essays" you will be presented with a number of websites. It is suggested that you examine and take notes on the following in addition to the other material you find detailing the advantages and disadvantages of school uniforms:
  • www.hü where you will find the following three articles: “CHP leader criticizes new school dress code”, “Obligatory school uniforms abolished amid criticism” and the last one,” New regulation to end mandatory school uniforms, restrictions on head scarves”
When you have completed your research – which need not be limited to the sites listed above incidentally – write a four paragraph essay on the advantages and disadvantages of school uniforms. Use the points below and any others you have discovered.
The absence of school uniforms; the disadvantages:
  • Becomes a financial burden for families
  • May lead to administrative and security problems
  • May lead to discipline problems
  • May lead to psychological problems such as inferiority
  • May cause students to lose the sense of a team spirit
The absence of uniforms; the advantages:
  • Students free to express themselves with their clothes and style
  • Students more comfortable
  • Greater character development


The world has witnessed and continues to witness countless refugee crises the most recent being the Syrian refugees in The Middle East. This is not unfortunately the only one: Congolese civilians have recently had to cross over in to neighboring Rwanda; the Darfur crisis has gone on for years. What are the effects of such forced exoduses on the victims and on the host countries which sometimes grudgingly welcome them? How can the problem be addressed? Research the topic on, and and take notes on what you listen to. Once you have done this, do some reading and make some notes. When you are done, follow the plan below to write a four paragraph essay.
In your introduction, discuss the causes of refugee crises such as civil wars, draught, famine or similar disasters for example. End your introduction with a thesis statement stating clearly that refugee crises affect both the host country and the refugees themselves as they are hugely disruptive.
In the first developmental paragraph, discuss the effects on the host country:
  • A strain on facilities and amenities
  • Friction with the local population
In the second developmental paragraph, discuss the effects on the refugees:
  • Physical problems ( inadequate accommodation, lack of basic necessities and creature comforts)
  • Psychological problems ( due to trauma that has been suffered and continuing problems with day to day living)
In your conclusion, explain that such situations should not be allowed to drag on and thus the international community needs to pull together to address the problems. Suggest the following:
  • Financial aid to enable charities and host countries to provide for the refugees.
  • Negotiations to provide political solutions to problems causing particular crises


          In the Legend of Pandora, people accept that Pandora is the first woman of the world who opened the box despite its unknown danger, and caused diseases and evils to spread. According to many myths such as Adam and Eve, like in the Legend of Pandora, women are likely to be seen as curious and causing evil. This is why they were treated as second-class citizens. Nowadays, women are still facing this problem and violence besides. Fortunately, violence against women has been a universal problem and it started to be discussed in some quarters. There are several reasons for violence against women that should be mentioned.

          First of all, a combination of a patriarchal society, aggression and traditions may be the main reason for this problem. For example, violence is a more common act in the eastern part of Turkey. Eastern people think that the man is always the dominant person in his family because of the traditions. A patriarchal society supports this traditional rule to get strong. According to the patriarchal society, women generally tend to be considered weaker to make their life easy. In addition to all these arguments, having an aggressive character lets the violence occur easily. Aggression is usually the final straw of violence.

          Secondly, a violent past is another reason for violence against women. According to many researchers, violence is like a heritable disease. It has an impact on the sub-families. A boy will tend to resort to violence if he is exposed to it during childhood. This situation is not always true but often the case. 

          The third reason is lack of enforcement of legislation. In Turkey, there is a law for women's rights or violence against women but it is not successful in practice. Many violent crimes are still unpunished because of the woman's not complaining for fear of their husbands. If a woman has not  got economic independence and she faces social pressure due to opposing her husband, she prefers to keep silent. 

           To conclude, the reasons of violence against women are a combination of a patriarchal society, traditions and aggression,  violent childhood experiences and legislation that is not enforced as it is mentioned. We can cope with this problem by using long term and short term solutions. The long term solution is to change the society deeply so there is zero tolerance for domestic violence and the short term solutions are setting up shelters and safe houses and enforcing legislation..    

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fatih Ok; Remedial; 2013


   Nowadays, computer programs are getting better.Will this improvement enable computers to think like a human being? Many scientists have researched this topic. And thus, a test called “ The Turing test” was established by Alan Turing.This test measures if a computer program can think.Passing the Turing test means a computer can think.Therefore, a computer cannot pass the Turing test.On the other hand, some scientists believe it is possible because of three major factors.
   First of all, there was an idea in the 1960s of cutting the world up into objects and actions that you can name.In addition, all the words in a dictionary are symbols that refer to the world so intelligence may emerge if you put them all together in a careful way.However, this approach doesn’t work when the program is exposed to a bit of ambiguity.
   Secondly, there is a better way called “statelessness”.Since the Turing test is based on conversations, this idea emerged.In a stateless conversation, each response only  has to vaguely refer to the one that comes immediately before it.This method is more logical than the first one.However,since a program cannot consistently judge like a human being in this way, it is insufficient to pass the Turing test.
   The last possibility is that a computer may succeed on the Turing test if it is exposed to all of the same sights and sounds and sensory experiences that a person is .We can imitate a person but which one?In order to pass the test  we must put general human logic into a computer so this way is not  a solution either.
  In conclusion, scientists show the three best ways as cutting the world into objects, statelessness, and exposing a machine to life experiences so as to pass the Turing test.We cannot pass the Turing test due to the insufficiency of these three methods.
                           ALİ KİREÇLİGÖL
                             PRE-INT 2013

Tuesday, January 15, 2013


  Undoubtly, discovery of genes has changed many things in the last years.Thanks to this, we can have more information about people such as their traits and sicknesses.Moreover, political views may be learned with a new field of study called “genopolitics”.That is good and we can see the impact of genes on our political ideas.However, genes cannot determine our political opinions accurately because of the complex encoding of information, complex human genetic design, and the effects of environmental factors.
   Firstly, genes don’t include simple information; in other words features are encoded in our genes in a complex way.Therefore, the information we can gain from genes is very limited and we cannot understand acurately if a person is liberal or conservative.
   Secondly,human beings have a sophisticated design of genes.And thus, a trait or factor can be determined by many genes so it may be illogical to imagine a gene controlling our voting and political perspective.
  Lastly, environmental factors influence our opinions.Especially our parents and friends have effects on our ideas.In addition, our experiences such as a leader’s good services or a candidate lying can effect this.
  In conclusion, we can learn about people’s political views such as general tendencies to political groups.However, we cannot understand exactly what people’s political views are from only genes due to environmental impacts, the advanced genetic design in the human body, and form of encoding of information.
                                                                                      ALİ KİREÇLİGÖL
                                                                                       PRE-INT  2013

Sunday, January 13, 2013


By: Tom Safford
Level of Difficulty: *
·         Have you ever played Tetris?
·         How long did you play for once you had started?
·         Why do you think people have trouble stopping once they have started?

  Why You'll Always Lose at Tetris | Game/Show | PBS Digital Studios
The psychology of Tetris

1.       What are the two basic components of the game Tetris?
2.       What is a pharmatronic?
3.       People with PTSD may be able to benefit from Tetris because of ……………………………………………
4.       What basic human instinct does Tetris exploit?
5.       What is the basic difference between snooker and Tetris?
6.       Most teachers will memorize the names of their students immediately, not forget them during the winter break but forget them immediately during the summer holidays. What is this phenomenon called and why does it happen? Be specific.
7.       For what two reasons does the game Tetris fit in with the Zeigarnik effect?
8.       Why do so many people find it impossible to stop playing Tetris? Be brief and to the point.
9.       Why exactly does the Zeigarnik effect occur?
10.   Look at the last paragraph of the text carefully and answer the following questions:
·         What is the function of the first sentence?
·         What is the function of the second sentence?
·         What is the function of the following two sentences?
·         What is the function of the last sentence?
Write a summary of the text after you have made a few notes. To see how this is done, study the file marked “Summaries” on this blog. Begin as follows:
“Tetris is a simple mechanical game which draws on….”
This wonderful little text should appeal to the current generation which is, after all the Tetris generation. They will be able to relate to it and recount their own experiences. Best of all it is simple and straightforward, which means it can be done quite early in the year.
1.       Shapes that fall from the sky; an annoyingly addictive electronic soundtrack
2.       A video game with the potency of an addictive drug.
3.       Its mental pull.
4.       The (deep-seated) psychological drive to tidy up.
5.       In the case of/ In Tetris, not only must the player tidy up, but the computer keeps throwing extra blocks from the sky to add to the mess.
6.       Because complete tasks don’t stick in the memory; the Zeigarnik Effect. This question is the only difficult one in the bunch but I felt it was a good idea to meet it early on and get used to the idea that reading tasks can’t be done on auto pilot.
7.       It continually creates unfinished tasks (students will need to make the answer fit the grammar of the question); each unfinished task only appears at the same time as its solution.
8.       Because it creates a world where action is quicker than words.
9.       Because the mind is designed to reorganize around the pursuit of goals.
10.   Provides transition from the previous paragraph; the main idea; support for the main idea; concluding statement. At this point go back to question 8 and explain why the lengthy support that follows the correct answer cannot be accepted and they must learn to home in on the main idea.