Monday, July 10, 2017

THE BENEFITS OF PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR


Acting prosocially is said to benefit society and the individual  but what exactly is prosocial behavior and what specifically are the advantages? Do your research and find out. When you are ready, write an essay on the topic.
Familiarize yourself with the issue
·         Ethics defined: prosocial behavior https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBh7hCnCdBY
Reading material to make notes on
·         Small acts of kindness at work benefit the giver, the receiver and the whole organization
·         Prosocial behavior  http://www.learningtogive.org/resources/prosocial-behavior
Podcast
·         Prosocial behavior  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t7oEHrFmOn0
Videos to watch and take notes from

·         Pro social behavior Will you watch this social contract https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QEb3t-w_x8E  

Wednesday, July 5, 2017

THE IMPORTANCE OF MEDICAL ETHICS


Medical ethics has become more important in the world with the increasing focus on human rights. However, what does medical ethics mean and what does it entail? Do your research and discusswhat medical ethics is and what the advantages are.
Case Study
·         Despite big offers, little has changed for baby Charlie Gard
·         Charlie Gard's parents say his life support will be withdrawn on Friday
Familiarize yourself with the issue
·         Resident Ethics Series: Issues and Scenarios for Discussion and Guidance
https://www.aaos.org/ResidentEthics/?ssopc=1#modal-container-463164  Scroll down, watch the ten little videos and think about the issues
Reading material to make notes on
·         The Hippocratic oath and professional ethics https://scholarblogs.emory.edu/philosophy316/2014/04/24/the-hippocratic-oath-and-professional-ethics/ 
·         Medical ethics https://patient.info/doctor/medical-ethics 
·         Legally speaking: the trouble with bending the rules http://www.modernmedicine.com/modern-medicine/content/legally-speaking-trouble-bending-rules  
Podcast
·         How Medical Ethics Were Compromised During the Nazi Regime https://reachmd.com/programs/clinicians-roundtable/how-medical-ethics-were-compromised-during-the-nazi-regime/2720/  
Video to watch and take notes from
·         A Conversation About Challenging Cases in Clinical Ethics https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3QoxMX2kIn8
·         Why and How to Teach Medical Ethics https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pf_4HIrurGU


Sunday, July 2, 2017

THE TRICKS TO MAKE YOURSELF EFFORTLESSLY CHARMING


“From the first moment you walk into room, people are making judgements about how much they like you. Fortunately, there are ways to improve your chances”
By: Tiffanie Wen
Level of difficulty: *
BEFORE YOU READ
·         Let’s face it: charisma matters https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SEDvD1IICfE
·         Can charisma be taught? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZkSojpni_Rc
·         The secret of Bill Clinton’s charisma https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0o_EK4EjuEY

 QUESTIONS
1.       We can assume from reading the first two paragraphs that charmers are made not born / charmers can be born and made.
2.       We understand from the following two paragraphs that we make snap judgements/ overgeneralizations / impulsive desicions / accurate assessments about people very quickly based on their looks. Mark the odd one out
3.       Read the examples concerning politicians and those wishing to borrow money. What conclusion can be drawn from these examples?
4.       Read the section titled “Put on a happy Face”. Now determine if the following statements are True or False based on the section as a whole:
·         Putting on a happy face can create a positive first impression and alter an initial negative impression.
·         Only extraverted people are regarded as trustworthy
·         An initial negative impression can be amended later on
·         People can be made to  look more trustworthy
5.       Read the section titled “Channell your charm” to the end. Now answer the following questions based on the whole section:
·         An initial negative impression can be corrected by means of...
·         What sort of a taxi driver, for instance, is likely to get more fares? One who... (There are three answers; find them all)
·         What is the reason for the i,ncreasing importance of social skills in the modern world? The collapse of...
·         What trend in the modern workplace necessitates likeability?
·         What makes people like Carson special is the fact that they are....who...
6.       Read the section titled “Raising Eyebrows to the end. Now answer the questions:
·         We understand that facial expression is important when trying to make a good impression because charming people.....
·         You cannot make yourself likeable by talking about yourself to the person you have just met because…
·         Simple eye contact is enough/ not enough when seeking to make a good impression because….
·         What is the significance of the writer’s comment to the student in the lift?
·         In both the case of direct flattery and the networking situation the purpose is to pay a compliment / cheer the person up / endear oneself / make the person happy.
·         Now look back at the title for this section. Is it appropriate? Why or why not?
7.       Read the section titled “Find Common Ground” to the end. Now answer the questions:
·         Imagine you are discussing the topic of euthanasia with a person who you want to get on side. He is for it but you are not. You are shocked by his views. Would you: interrupt him and voice your counter arguments / change the topic to avoid an argument / listen carefully until he is finished even if you disagree? Why?
·         It is implied in the last paragraph of the section that experts in various fields should be able to speak well / should be comfortable in society / should broaden their horizons /  should be tolerant of differences.
8.       Read the section titled watch their body to the end. Now answer the questions:
·         If you are sitting at a table, leaning forwards with both arms on the table and the person sitting opposite you does the same, it means …
·         You are  a very lonely person with a lot of personal problems. You meet someone wonderful at a cafĂ©. Your instinct is to pour your heart out / be remain very guarded / be very careful about what you say but this wrong because…
·         It would be much better to tell him a little and then save the rest for later because …
·         A good car salesman needs to be able to get a buyer to answer as many personal questions as possible to be able to…
·         You meet the same person at the bus stop every morning and you take the same bus to work. How likely are you to start talking to him one day? Why?
WRITING TASK
Use the information you have acquired to write about how one can become more charming
THE TRICKS TO MAKE YOURSELF EFFORTLESSLY CHARMING; KEY AND TEACHERS’ NOTES
There are some extremely charming people in the world who everyone envies. However, according to this text, people can actually learn to be more charming in life. The text should lead to some interesting discussion and a straightforward writing task.
1.       Charmers can be born and made
2.       Accurate assessments
3.       Making a snap judgment on something so superficial is rash
4.       F, F, T, T
5.       Charm, is likeable OR has social skills OR interpersonal skills, old hierarchical structures, Working in teams, introverts who trained themselves to be extroverts
6.        Move their eyebrows up and down quickly, tilt their heads slightly and  smile; you won’t be making them feel good about themselves ; you should focus on the different colors in the irises; It was an empathetic comment that reflected what the student was feeling; Endear oneself; It is not, it doesn’t express the main idea of the section.
7.       The last, because although it might seem like you totally disagree on closer examination you might agree on a few things; should broaden their horizons

8.       You have rapport; pour your heart out, it can put him off; curiosity hooks; advance the relationship; Very likely because spending time near someone makes him like you; 

Wednesday, June 28, 2017

ECOTHERAPY AND ITS BENEFITS


Ecotherapy is a wonderful way to deal with a whole host of psychological and mental problems. It has untold advantages which are rejuvenating. Do your research and discover what it entails and what its advantages are. When you are ready, write an essay on the topic.
Familiarize yourself with the issue
·         The healing power of nature   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u8cPbYtylb0
Reading material to make notes on
·         Ecotherapy, nature therapyhttp://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/types/econature-therapy
·         Wilderness reflections https://www.wildernessreflections.com/resources/what-is-ecotherapy/  
Videos to watch and take notes from
·         What is eco therapy? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UeV98nSrSZ4
·         Practice being present: guided eco therapy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YG9JarSe28E
·         Prescribing nature for health https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0uk0QriYYws

·         Get hooked on nature https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ArhjLa4xbNk

Wednesday, June 21, 2017

THE REASONS YOU CAN’T BE ANONYMOUS ANYMORE


By: Brian Lufkin
Level of difficulty: **
WATCH AND TAKE NOTES
·         National security versus privacy http://video.cnbc.com/gallery/?video=3000560423
·         British Debaters: National Security vs Personal Privacy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xUZy6rcMeBg
·         Spy On Me, I'd Rather Be Safe https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hlCiqyH6XII
QUESTIONS
1.       Read the first three paragraphs of the text. What past assumption is no longer true in the modern world?
2.       Humans are unique in the sense that their public self suffices / does not suffice and they need ………………..as well to form their identity.
3.       In what sense is anonymity liberating? In the sense that …
4.       What conclusion was reached by the 2013 study?
5.       What contradiction was observed in the behavior of a lot of internet users?
6.       The reason for the above attitude could be…
7.       What conclusion can be drawn concerning public attitude from the examples of all the internet activity provided in the text?
8.       What is the reason for the above feeling of complete freedom?
9.       The reason why it is extremely difficult to hide anything in the modern world no matter how hard you try is that…
10.   It has become much easier recently for big business to track internet users because ….
11.   All the latest developments in advertising mean that the only way to escape surveillance is …
12.   What interesting revelation is made in the text concerning anonymity?
13.   What conclusion can be drawn from the Pew study and the YouGov study :
·         The public is torn between the desire for anonymity and national security
·         The public is leaning towards ensuring national security
·         The public is leaning towards maintaining anonymity
14.   What practical advice is offered concerning posting on the internet?
15.   Read the section to the end. The only way to preserve anonymity in the modern world is …
WRITING TASK
Use the videos you have watched and the text you have read to write an argumentative essay concerning whether privacy should be sacrificed to provide national security
THE REASONS YOU CAN’T BE ANONYMOUS ANYMORE KEY AND TEACHERS’ NOTES
The text covers a very topical issue: anonymity. It is a very well organized and a very well written text that covers the issue from all angles. The videos provided at the beginning lay out the dilemma concerning whether privacy should be sacrificed to provide national security. It should lead to some interesting discussion and a good writing task.
1.       That you can enter an isolated situation without being monitored or tracked by a far flung company or individual
2.       Does not suffice; a private self
3.       It allows us to try new things or express ideas without being judged
4.       People from all walks of life had reason, at one time or another, to seek anonymity.
5.       Minimum: Many internet users who say they value anonymity aren’t walking the walk
6.       A cultural thawing towards previously uptight attitudes
7.       Minimum:  People’s comfort level with the internet has risen to the point where information-sharing can be careless and reckless
8.       People tend to think of cyberspace as some kind of imaginary space without true boundaries, a space not to be taken too seriously…
9.       A Google savvy sleuth can dig up loads of personal information about you using a single fact as a starting point / OR As long as someone knows something about you, they can probably find other things about you
10.   Donald Trump signed a law that repealed requirements for internet service providers to get permission from customers before gathering and sharing their personal data
11.   To live without the internet or without any smart device
12.   Anonymity is a relatively new construct and the rise of cities gave rise to it
13.   The Second
14.   Don’t put comments down in texts or emails that would bother you if they were on the front page of the newspaper.
15.   For governments, tech corporations worldwide to agree on a baseline system of ethics


Tuesday, June 20, 2017

THE SURPRISING BENEFITS OF A TOUGH CHILDHOOD


No one covets a stressful childhood. But the later-life benefits of growing up in a tumultuous home are beginning to come to light, upending conventional wisdom in the process.”
By: Megan Hustard
Level of Difficulty: ***
BEFORE YOU READ
·         EDxNewy 2011 - Liz Mullinar - Treating the core problem of childhood trauma https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=svX3fEdVTLQ
·         How Do We Stop Childhood Adversity from Becoming a Life Sentence. | Benjamin Perks | TEDxPodgorica https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qp0kV7JtWiE
·         The effect of trauma on the brain and how it affects behaviors | John Rigg | TEDxAugusta
QUESTIONS
1.       The life Sarah lead in her formative years left a lasting impression because she spent her time with…
2.       What illogical idea did Sarah come to believe in?
3.       Sarah feels sorry for her husband because she doesn’t love him / he is too clingy / he wants to hold her hand / she can’t tolerate signs of love / she acts on instinct.
4.       Having to deal with two alcoholic parents while growing up sharpened Sarah’s ……………proving that there are some up sides to a painful childhood.
5.       Read the first two paragraphs of the section titled “New Perspectives”. We understand from this section that a painful childhood:
·         Prevents a child from developing properly
·         Prevents a child from developing psychologically
·         Prevents a child from developing his inherent abilities
·         Prevents a child from dealing with stress
6.       We also learn from the text that a painful childhood can put the individual permanently on the defensive and see ‘perceived enemies’ behind every bush. This is called ……………….Such individuals develop various antisocial behavior patterns such as……
7.       What was the major flaw in the research that reached all the above conclusions?
8.       Read as far as the next subtitle. We understand from the example provided that a reaction that is………….in one situation can be ………….in another or vice versa . There is more than one answer but they are synonyms.
9.       Read the experiment concerning task shifting and inhibitory control. Did the results of the experiment bear out the initial hypothesis? Now look at the results once again the superiority of those who experienced unpredictability in childhood in terms of …………..is significant because………….
10.   Read Steve’s story to the end. His childhood experiences helped develop a basic characteristic and this has helped him a lot in life. This characteristic is…
11.   A second cognitive advantage enjoyed by people like Steve involves efficiency and is called:
12.   Growing up in unstable environments can also make people hyper vigilant and lead them to do better in situations where they need to….
13.   Where in the paragraph beginning “Stress is not one-dimensional…” would you place the following sentence: There are numerous variables at play in shaping the kind of adult the child will become and researchers should beware of overgeneralizations 
14.   Why does a moderate amount of stress increase success in dealing with a challenging problem?
15.   Does Frankenhuis believe nurture, nature or a combination of both when it comes to the formation of a child’s character?
16.   Lillian was able to cope with everything life threw at her thanks to …..
17.   What misguided practice does the writer criticize?
18.   Read the story of the group retreat organized by Morgan Crone. What conclusion can we draw from the example?
WRITING TASK
Write an essay in which you discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a painful childhood. Use the information you have acquired.
THE SURPRISING BENEFITS OF A TOUGH CHILDHOOD KEY AND TEACHERS’ NOTES
A lot of people experience tumultuous childhoods which leave their mark and shape their future endeavors. This article focuses on the upsides as well and is therefore refreshing. Hopefully, students with similar experiences to those mentioned in the text will also provide insight and tell their own stories.
1.       Two problem drinkers
2.       That everything was her fault
3.       She cannot tolerate signs of love
4.       Observational Skills
5.       Prevents a child from developing his inherent abilities
6.       Hostile attribution / Acting rashly, even when unprovoked, being sullen and withdrawn and flying off the handle
7.       It focused on what people from adverse environments were bad at
8.       Maladaptive / wrong / bad etc. ; adaptive /right / good etc
9.       Yes it does; Task shifting; It correlates positively with traits such as creativity
10.   Tolerance for ambiguity
11.   Working memory updating
12.   Explore other possibilities and stumble upon novel solutions
13.   Right at the end: it makes a good concluding statement
14.   Because a moderate amount of stress triggers a moderate amount of the chemical messenger called norepinephrine
15.   A combination of both
16.   Her ability to meet the challenges of change
17.   Pushing high risk kids to act more like kids from low stress, low risk environments
18.   The minimum: The way we interpret history is up for grabs


THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF URBAN TRANSFORMATION


(This essay would be considered ‘Adequate’ on our proficiency test)
People have lived together in settlements since ancient times. These settlements used to be rural communities. Now they are big cities and are called urban environments. Urbanization became a growing trend after the industrial revolution and now there are big megacities. It is predicted that by 2050 most people will be living in cities. This urban transformation has some important advantages and disadvantages.
Urbanization is good for communities in terms facilities and amenities as well as services. Firstly, the facilities and amenities provided by municipalities are much better. Every district gets running water and electricity. Districts are linked by an efficient transport system. Rubbish is collected and access to goods is easy and quick. Amenities like parks, playing fields, swimming pools and various cultural activities are provided in cities. People can go to the cinema, theatre or to concerts. They can lead a good life and enjoy themselves. Secondly the services provided in cities are much better. There are schools in every district and children don’t have to travel miles to get there. The quality of teaching is good. Children are prepared well for the future. Another service is healthcare. If people get ill, they can access hospitals, doctors and chemists. This is a big advantage. In short, there are many upsides to living in cities.
Urbanization is bad for communities in some respects too. Firstly, all these people living together means that there is a lot of pollution. The air is polluted by traffic, factories and homes. The water is polluted by waste from factories and homes. Noise and light pollution are chronic problems. In short, cities are dirty places. The reason that they are dirty is overcrowding and this is the second problem. Living on top of each other means people live in apartments. They don’t know each other and they don’t support and help each other. Everybody leaves for work at the same time. This means there is a lot of traffic  and public transport is full. Schools are crowded; parks and gardens are full of people and there is a lot of noise everywhere. This goes on 24/7. The city never sleeps. In short, living in the city is not all it is cracked up to be.

In conclusion, many factors determine where people live. These are family connections, job opportunities and the like. Every place has its downsides and upsides. People should learn to deal with them. Cities are no different. The choice of whether or not to live in cities is a personal one