Friday, March 29, 2013


Being able to get gun use under control must be a difficult situation for the US, in other words, the biggest gun dealer in the World. A person who has watched “Lord of War” can remember Yuri Orlov’s first speech easily: “There are 550 million firearms in worldwide circulation. That’s one firearm for every twelve people on the planet. The only question is: How do we arm the other 11?”. Think about such a global world in which every government and many groups, even individuals, have joined in the arms race and then governments want to prevent individual armament by legislations. This perception is nothing more than an error. For this reason, serious steps must be taken by the US in order to solve this problem, of course, if they really want to deal with it.
            One way to combat this problem would be to restrict the production of guns, because if the US does not restrict gun production, the number of gun owners in the USA, as well as the world, will carry on increasing.  Depressingly, it is almost impossible to get gun use under control. On the other hand, it seems that serious legal sanctions might prevent individual armament, but people always have some problems about obeying the rules. It means that where there is a weapon, there is violation. Maybe the US can decrease individual armament to some degree, but the US cannot prevent it completely.
            Another way to deal with this problem would be to close down gun shops and to seize illegal or unrecorded guns and then all of them should be annihilated. I have never made sense of why the government sells guns to its own citizens. I wonder if citizens can protect themselves from each other. If so, the existence of the state must be doubted, because the government is obligated to protect citizens from troubles.
            As it is known, in the capitalist system, demand is a crucial factor. Firstly, give people reasons like fear, unfair competition and injustice in order to fight with each other and then make selling guns legal. It is important to realize that while anyone is shooting, not only gun dealers but also governments are getting rich. For the US (the biggest dealer of the world), the first and most important rule is never to get shot with their own guns. To sum up, this problem cannot be solved for some countries especially the US, Russia, and China as long as gun production is not stopped by governments.
Sadık Eyidoğan Intermediate

Thursday, March 28, 2013


A student has just shown me a wonderful new web site which is completely free. The site is and is a forum where teachers who are native speakers conduct online classes on various topics. When you access the website you can see at a glance which lesson is ongoing, which are pending and the past lessons. You can join in at once via google hangout. On the left, you will see the list of teachers. It is a superb site; I loved it and I hope you find it beneficial.


City life is an attractive and a magical life for suburban people experiencing some difficulties in the country. Cities provide many opportunities to inhabitants such as education, health services, employment opportunities and so on which make urban areas attractive. In fact, living in the cities facilitates people’s daily life and offers people a better life. Because of that fact, some people immigrate to cities from the country for a ‘higher’ quality of life. However, they don’t notice at first what the new type of life will cost and what the negative effects of living in cities are. City life may create lots of problems which don’t have actual solutions. In the following essay, I will try to examine some of it’s basic effects.
Education and employment systems in the cities are competative and stressful. Because of the competition between students and employees, people have to work harder to achieve their goals which have thousands of competitors, or manage to do their best for the tasks they have to do. As a result of this, people suffer from physical and psychological problems such as stress. In addition, the short term problems will cause worse effects in the future such as heart diseases. Also, entertainment habits can create problems. Bar parties may seem attractive to young people especially, but in such areas, people will face the problem of addiction to some drugs or alcholism. Therefore, urban people will face the darkest part of city life.
                In cities, time management is a serious problem and affects people. They spend their time at work, in traffic, in school, shopping or cleaning. So, spending time without doing anything for oneself makes people unable to balance their life. Most urban people require time to spend with loved ones, to have fun and to rest,but in the cities, time passes quickly but unproductively mostly. The problem urban people face has a big impact on their lives. In addition, consumerism is another negative effect of city life. People want to purchase goods they see their friends, collegues or someone  else with. However, when they buy things they desired, the notion of consumerism doesn’t stop, so they want to buy another thing then another one. So the vicious circle will continue when people spend money on products they didn’t really need.
                The harmful effect of city life also concerns health. People suffer from physical and psychological disorders from stress to heart diseases. The disorders cause the decrease of quality of life, so after some time, people can’t gain pleasure from life and become unappy. They are also influenced by other negative effects so it creates another vicious circle which captures their daily lives. Stress decreases peace of mind which is important to inhibit health problems and gain pleasure from life. However, city life creates stressful, angry and unhappy people.
                As mentioned before, city life has many bad effects from people’s basic lives to their serious health problems. However, living in a city also provides many opportunities which they feel they can cope with. In fact, people have life choices to conduct their lives. Choosing city life or country life is down to them. So, people should agree first what they want from their lives and then venture to make their choices.


Wednesday, March 27, 2013


   The family is the basic unit of society. Almost every person wants to get married and have a good family. The aim of marriage is not divorce. However, people get divorced  because of some problems. In today's society, divorce is very common. People get divorced  without thinking.They  do not consider their children's feelings when they get divorced. Divorce has some major effects on children, some of which are negative, the others  not.
   The majority of children are affected in negative ways. They are affected both psychologically and socially. They may not be able to understand the real reason of divorce, so they start to
blame themselves. Because of not having a family, they feel alone and abandoned. They think that if their parents abandon each other, they can be abandoned, too. They feel fear of abandonment, they cannot trust anyone. Also, they become more stressful. They may not be happy, they become hard to control. Therefore, relationships between parents and children may be damaged. Children have to choose one of their parents, so they may start to show favouritism towards one of their parents.
   Although most children are affected negatively, divorce has positive effects on children too. They do not have to grow up in an unhealthy environment. They see that their parents are happy and healthy. Thus, they become happy. They also have good relationships with their step-parents. They may love their step parents more than their own parents. They have a good environment.
   As can be seen, divorce affects children mostly in negative ways. Divorce seems inevitable when the relationship between couples gets worse. In this situation, parents must pay attention to their children. They should consider children's development and put children's needs first. Divorce is an important decision not only for parents but also for children, they must be careful.

Seyma Karadereli Preint H


When sport events such as Olympic Games and World Cups are announced by the FIFA committee, it generally creates a noticeable thrill in people who live in countries hosting these events.FIFA awarded the right to host the 2022 World Cup to Qatar.Beyond that, Qatar is the first country in the Middle East to get this honour.Such games have a significant impact on the host country’s economy.
To understand how the World Cup would help Qatar’s economy, we need to briefly glance into data related to expenditures.The Qatar Government has outlined a plan to spend approximately $150 billion.A huge proportion of this expenditure will be devoted to infrastructure  and other projects such as a mega structures, transportation, education and the health sector.The first phase of the Project is the New Doha International Airport.When it is finished, the new airport will have the capacity to cater to 25 million passengers per year.The cost of this Project is $10 billion.Apart from that, other projects such as a deep water seaport and the rail network will cost ; $7 and $25 billion, respectively.
When the impacts of new investments on the economy are taken into consideration, they will help to set the stage for growth in the future.It will also boost  tourism and lead to the creation of  a pole of attraction in the region.Spending will have remarkable repercussions for the country’s financial sector.Especially, the banking sector will be one of the main beneficiaries.Since many enterpreneurs will receive support from banks for credit, this,in turn, will create quick recovery for the banking sector, and they won’t be affected by the global financial crisis.Therefore, future plans will enable banks to generate revenues and increase fee generating  businesses.Furthermore, all these developments will contribute to Quatar’s competitiveness among the other Middle-East countries, and Qatar will become one of the financial centers for the region.
On the other hand, it is not easy to asses such plans.There are always risks.To start with, projected spending creates pressure on  government finances because the Qatar government has already issued several bonds in the past years, and now has increased its loan from local banks.That’s  to say, while the banking sector is saving itself from the global crisis, it can drive the government further and further into dept.Actual spending might tend to exceed the budget of the government.
To sum up,the Middle-East countries are convenient and suitable places for  huge building projects.Qatar is one of them.During the World Cup, it will need a huge number of stadiums, hotels and so on.The steel and aluminium industry is one  of the basic components for building. Thus, the demand for steel and aluminium in this region will increase.The products can be stocked locally which can control the market. If nothing is done, inflation rates will rise and a lot of projects will more likely not finish at the estimated time.
Mehmet Çelebi Remedial


People live in the city because of work,education,health and entertainment facilities.However, city life has many negative effects on people such as lack of communication or alienation and pollution.
First of all, people living in the city usually don't have leisure time because they are too busy.They cannot do anything for themselves.They go to work in the mornings then they come home in the evenings.Finally, they watch tv or spend time on the internet and sleep at night.Their lives being so monotonous ,they have some mental problems such as insomnia,depression and panic attacks.In reality, they can solve these problems by speaking with their friends or their families.However, people are always busy in the city.They can just go to work or school and come home.They spend a lot of time in traffic, which is terrible.They cannot talk to each other or meet their friends.When they cannot share anything , they feel depressed and lonely.Likewise , alienation has become a major problem in the city today.People don't know their neigbors or co-workers because of lack of communication.They don't understand the value of friendship or hospitality.
In the city, there are many dangers for people because of pollution, especially air, noise and light pollution.There are many citizens living in the city and they also have cars.For this reason, there are many cancer patients in the city.Another important source of pollution is noise which affects people's psychological and physiological health.Light pollution is also a huge problem, especially for migratory birds travelling at night.They cannot move because of light pollution.For this reason, they cannot eat insects and we should strive to fight against insects.
To sum up, there are many negative effects of city life such as pollution, alienation and lack of communication.I think people should not forget their values and they should not change to adapt to city life.Of course they should adapt to this system but they should not lose their love of life.

Deniz Irem Ergüney / Pre-Int L

Sunday, March 24, 2013


I am proud to be able to announce a wonderful new blog created by a friend and fellow member of staff Nick O'Gara. The purpose of the blog is to exploit existing videos on the net to help students practice listening. I would strongly advise you access it.The link is:


My most recent article, "A Chronic Medical Condition: An Allergy to Thinking and the Entertaining of Ideas" is currently on the Humanizing Language Teaching website:

Friday, March 22, 2013



Lead, which is a very dangerous and highly toxic material for every organism, has been produced for many decades all around the world, especially in US. Since the production of lead started years ago, it has been continuing to poison people and causing brain damage. Now, there is a lot of controversy among poor people who accuse the scientists and companies of abandoning them to death. Because of the obvious negative consequences, now, companies in US can not bear to refuse these accusations.

To start with, lead poisoning is a long-term disaster which is involved in toy making, cake decorations but mostly in paints. Although there have been many strict rules to ban the excessive consumption of lead paint, a lot of enterprises have violated these rules because of their own purposes. Also, the government has always  been reluctant to think about citizens’ health because lead plays an important role in the national economy. Even if the government is blamed for neglecting the real scientific data, they stil insist on advertising the lead-containing products.

But now, it is obvious that lead poisoning has considerable negative effects on the nervous system. Most children in US are suffering from low IQ levels. And if there are not enough prohibitions to protect children from increasing consumption and production of lead, there will be inevitable unhealthy generations. Thus, the future will be very dark for the citizens if they do not have campaigns to maintain their protest.

In conclusion, lead is a kind of murder. Limitless use of lead might cause a horrible destruction of human –beings’ existence. There are definitely many ways to reduce the effects of this destruction but it is all down to the government. Especially, if the scientists become more open about the real scientific data, the future generations will not be victims of this catastrophic incident any more.

                                                                                                     Aynur Dilan Tosun Advanced


These words are buzzwords of today.However, there is a negative correlation between them.It is obvious because globalization has led to a rise in the standard of living for many people worldwide.As technology advances and living conditions change, the third world countries can’t afford to pay such a high price for the latest technology.Furtherme, small businesses and poor countries are not capable of improving their technology as aresult of the rising demand and supply.The effects of globalization on poverty are a really controversial issue.While developing and developed countries make a profit thanks to globalization,third world countries are compelled to do business locally, therefore, they don’t expand and reach their full capacity.
When technology is considered ,improvements are not only useful for wealthy countries, but also wealthier companies.Without a doubt, many companies which are successful and wealthy owe their development  to technological innovations.One good and the most simple  exampleis certainly the invention of the telephone.It enabled information to be sent all over the world relatively more rapidly than ever before.Before it was invented, the transfer of information may have taken days, weeks, and even months!. Today, through the use of telephones , many countries are able to do business  in distant places.Consider, for example,your office is in the USA but you want to communicate or sent a text back to India, via the advanced systems, it can be managed by touching a key.
Unfortunately, nothing is so simple.This situation creates high unemployment rates and drives the people further and further into poverty.Therefore, some countries who can afford to pay millions every year for the newest technology will compete with others.Nations have to update their technology.If not, they are mostly unable to compete with wealthy countries.Unemployment is a critical concern in every national economy because a huge number of companies which have a great reputation consider that workers  who are not well-educated and lack skills are an obstacle to higher investment and economic  circulation .
Tos um up, the fact is that there is both a negative and positive correlation between globalization and poverty.Globalization decreases poverty in some countries while simultaneously increasing it in others.Likewise,it  causes the economies of many  third world countries and smaller companies to collapse, wealthier companies are using the poverty of other countries to their own advantage.Briefly, they behave like parasitic  animals.
Mehmet Çelebi Remedial


     When you ask somebody about their life, the answer is often “Busy!”.Since people perceive busyness as a good problem rather than the opposite and it is against emptiness; this has become a trend among adults and even children.Actually, the general approach to busyness is wrong.Idleness, the opposite of busyness, is so important for the brain especially in activities requiring inspiration.Consequently, we must balance these two important consepts.Otherwise, our life is likely to be awful.
    The text explains some dramatic facts.Firstly, people who enjoy being busy are actually addicted to busyness; in other words, their main dilemma is that they cannnot imagine its absence.Secondly, this addiction prevents people from participating in social activities and ultimately, it may even result in lack of communication between two close friends.The last one is that busyness just provides pschological satisfaction to some people yet they don’t mind what they do.The text should mention the effects of this problem on society such as individualism.There is an idea in the text that we have to destroy the current  politico-economic system since the goal of the future is full unemployment.Nevertheless, we shouldn’t exaggerate reducing busyness.
    It seems to me that busyness has a bad effect on families.For instance, a busy parent may notspend enough time with his or her family.In this respect, it can threaten the future of societies as the family is the main component of a society.In addition, we must make people aware of this problem by encouraging them to take care and have fun with their friends and family.
   To sum up, people often have a wrong perception of busyness.This may lead to some problems such as lack of communication among family members and friends, having no good time and being unable to relax.We shold be neither too busy nor too idle. 
Ali Kireçligöl Preint I 

Thursday, March 21, 2013


Technology is being used in all areas of human life and also plays an important role in education. It enables teachers to use different methods for making learning easier. A new concept was found a couple years ago , namely the flipped learning class method . The flipped learning class model includes short online videos prepared by teachers for students. It can be considered as a brief ,virtual course to lay the foundation for a topic that is from the syllabus. There are many advantages and disadvantages of it.

Everybody knows how important communication between teachers and students is . One of the advantages of flipped learning allows this because the students have an idea about the topic before the lecture and the teacher can discuss , analyze and organize the information so the flipped class creates a stress-free environment in the classroom and intra-group activism increases the success rate.  In addition  , despite sprending time on listening to the lecture , doing more practise , taking quizzes and extra-curricular activities can be more efficient. 
Despite the advantages , there are many disadvantages , especially due to the fac that it is a new and uncommon way to educate students . In terms of teachers , making the videos and coming up with the project activities produces a lot of extra work. There aren't a lot of videos that have already been prepared so they need to make a big effort and also teachers need to be tech savvy and get out of their comfot zones to get used to the new method It may be easier for younger teachers ,whereas the older ones may be out of their depth. Apart from them , flipped learning may not work with slow learners. Some students can't comprehend some issues easily . These issues need to be explained to them over and over again but this method doesn't give students a chance to ask their questions immediately. 

To sum up , the flipping learning method is becoming popular from day to day . It allows students to find the way that they learn best.  When the teachers and the students internalize this method over time , it will be more productive. 

                                                                                   GÖKÇE YENİEV
                                                                                     PRE-INT / J


 This century has brought significant changes to the world.Technological products,mobility and industrial production levels today and those about a hundred years ago are almost incomparable.These socio-political and technological changes have taken a heavy toll on particular social groups,especially teenagers.Due to these,and for many other reasons, there are many differences between the daily lives of teenagers today and a century
    Firstly,today's teenagers are more educated than a hundred years ago.The teenagers tend to question and test,and also tend to be beter informed in contrast to the past thanks to access to education.Moreover,today's teenagers use many types of technological products such as tablets,computers,smart phones both at school and at home.Thus,they have become one of the main target audiences for social media and they waste their leisure
time on social networks instead of doing more profitable activities.
    Teenagers a century ago had very little access to technology.They used their leisure time helping their parents around the house.In addittion,financial difficulties did not allow parents to send their children to school,and basically access to education was considered a privilege for male children.According to Maccoby "...more girls, than boys reported that their parents had encoureged them to attend college."(in 1978) This was a major problem in contrast to the present.Increased gender equality among teenagers today can be observed,easily.
     To sum up,time changes many activities which we can do.There is more gender equality,in terms of access to opportunities,among modern teenagers.In the future,we may live the life that we can't imagine now.


In your introduction, discuss the following:
·         The  continuing importance of essay writing as a part of any university course
·         Essays, dissertations, projects, reports, essay type questions.
·         The obvious need to prepare students in university prep classes for what is to come
·         The careful planning of writing classes to meet future needs necessary
Thesis Statement: There are various things a teacher needs to do both before students start to write the essay and after the completion of the task.
In you first developmental paragraph discuss the following:
Topic Sentence: The selection of the topic has a major role in determining the extent to which students benefit from the lesson and there are two ways to do this.
First alternative:
  • Essay follows listening and/ or reading activity covered in class
  • Necessitates a reading and / or listening task that will lead to writing
Second alternative:
  • Decide on an issue that warrants research
  • Google it to find related videos and texts
Result: an interesting and fruitful topic discovered
In your second developmental paragraph, discuss the following:
Topic Sentence: The preparation that needs to be made before students put pen to paper is as important as the actual writing of the essay.
First alternative:
  • Discuss the issue while tackling reading and / or listening task
  • Put points and notes on board
  • Encourage students to refer to the above
Second alternative:
  • Make notes on texts that have been discovered
  • Watch, listen and make notes on videos
  • Discuss notes and plan essay
Result: a very good essay, a valuable learning opportunity
In your third developmental paragraph, discuss the following:
Topic Sentence: The method of providing feedback is of vital importance if students are to benefit from the activity.
  • First draft: correction symbols
  • Justification: helps students focus on mistakes, which in turn helps them vanish
  • Feedback in class: on board, in the form of error analysis worksheets, good and bad essays
  • Second draft: actual correction of errors students have failed to be able to deal with.
  • Justification: reinforces learning
  • Have students file away both drafts for future reference
  • Have students make a list of errors
  • Justification: a repository of errors to be consulted
  • Result: problems ironed out; a stitch in time saves nine
In your conclusion, write a restatement along these lines: in short, writing is always the last stage in the learning process following input of one sort or another in the target language. It draws together all the information that has been gleaned, all the vocabulary and structures that have been learned and couples them with the students’ own opinions culminating in a beneficial learning experience.

Monday, March 18, 2013


    The use of science and technology for the improvement of life dates back many hundreds of years. Science and technology have been developed rapidly since the early ages thanks to people who devote their time to research. Developing science and technology has a lot of benefits as discoveries are used to meet the needs of society. In spite of these, science and technology cause many things which can be used for bad purposes and some people abuse developing technology and science. Therefore, it can safely be said that developments in science and technology offer several advantages and disadvantages to people.
     To begin with, one advantage of science and technology is that they make life easier. For example, people can communicate more easily with  the discovery of communication tools such as the phone and the internet. When something happens anywhere , it spreads more quickly and all people can gain information about issues they are interested in. Thanks to improving technology and science, the treatment of many diseases have been found. In earlier times, people could die due to simple diseases ,like flu , and at the present time , when you suffer from some of these disease , you can go to a doctor and can take medicine. Thanks to this advantage of science , people can live longer.
     Despite the advantages , there are also many disadvantages of scientific developments. One major disadvantage of these is that they can be used in wars. The ever expanding arms industry causes plenty of deaths as there are wars. About this subject, Quentin Reynolds said ,"The scientists split the atom ; now, the atom is spliting us." Another disadvantage of such developments is environmental pollution . Depending on the expansion of  industry, smog is rising in the air. China is the best example with pollution levels that are top of the charts. Some factories dump their waste in nature illegally. These actions can cause many diseases that can end in death.
     To sum up, the pros and cons of technology and science need to be discussed.  Obviously, no one desires to return to the middle ages and give up all that science and technology have provided us with. Yet, the disadvantages are potentially disastrous so measures should be taken to address them. Thus, we can enjoy the fruits of technology without shooting ourselves in the foot.

                                                                                                  İbrahim SARAÇLI / Pre Int. I

Thursday, March 14, 2013


     Levels of obesity in the United States of America are among the highest in the world.  According to the research of the Trust for American’s Health Oragnization, nearly one in every three people in America is obese. Because of this, the mayor of New York introduced a new bill in order to restrict the sale of drinks larger than 16 ounces (473 ml) in food-service establishments. Some people stand by the government policy; however, most of the people, approximately 60% of New Yorkers, are against the measure.
     The majority of people emphasize the fact that the consumption of soft beverages is people’s choice and the government should not interfere in individual rights. People can decide what is good for them for themselves. This subject doesn’t take place among the duties of the government. However, this is a superficial idea. Large sugary drinks lead to obesity, which is a big health problem; therefore, the government can look into this subject. Obesity has gone up incredibly in New York in recent years namely, 58% of adults in New York are obese or overweight. Furthermore, there has been an increase in obesity-related medical problems such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Because of this, New York City mayor M. Bloomberg has called for the ban as a way to reduce obesity and its related health problems.
     Opponents of the ban of large sugary drinks assert the view that the law will block only the sale of large sugary drinks for restaurants, pizzerias, sports stadiums and cinemas yet supermarkets and stores can continue to sell soft beverages. The law will only end in economic unfairness. They may be right to some extent. However, this law is only the onset of healthy living-conditions. It is not possible to eliminate obesity by limiting only the sale of large size drinks. The law has a symbolic meaning. Thanks to the law, people become aware of the health risks of sugary drinks.
     To conclude, despite the fact that there are people who believe that the court should not approve this law, there are others who think that the law is perfectly acceptable. In my opinion,unless the prevalence of obesity is inhibited in the world, all people will be at risk. Because of this, the bill should be approved by the court.

Tuesday, March 12, 2013


In your introduction, discuss the following:
·         The importance of being able to express yourself with clarity in writing
·         Writing, a skill required in many walks of life
·         Examples: business, school and universities
·         Universities: institutions where the writing skill is specially necessary
·         Thesis statement: There are various things a student needs to do both before and after he writes an essay to benefit and achieve perfection
In your first developmental paragraph, discuss the following:
  • Topic sentence: The preparation that needs to be made before putting pen to paper is as important as the actual writing
  • Research to provide background and enable thinking in English: google for texts, videos
  • Notes on the above
  • Justification: prevents thinking in the native language, enables  acquisition of vocabulary, structures and collocations, valuable revision
  • Result: a very good essay, valuable learning experience
In your second developmental paragraph discuss the following:
  • Topic sentence: The process followed after the writing of the essay is also of vital importance
  • Correction: preferably with correction symbols
  • Justification: students focus on mistakes
  • Second draft: to enable learning of mistakes
  • Justification:  reinforces learning
  • A list of typical mistakes: a repository of errors to be consulted
  • Result: problems ironed out;” a stitch in time saves nine”
In your conclusion do the following:
Write a restatement along these lines: in short, writing is always the last stage in the learning process following input of one sort or another in the target language. It draws together all the information that has been gleaned, all the vocabulary and structures that have been learned and couples them with the students’ own opinions culminating in a beneficial learning experience.

Monday, March 11, 2013


By: Helen Epstein
Published: March 21, 2013, The New York Review of Books
Level of Difficulty:****
Thanks are due to my friend and colleague Füsun Savcı for providing this fascinating text.
·         What do you know about heavy metal poisoning? Which heavy metals are considered toxic and in what different ways is the toxin ingested?
·         What do you know about lead poisoning? What are the causes? What are the effects?
Now, google lead poisoning, click videos and listen to and take notes from some of them. Alternatively, do the same research on and  watch, listen and take notes.
Section 1
  1. Why has lead poisoning due to lead paint continued to be a problem despite the law passed in 1978?
  2. For what two reasons do we know that Max was placed in danger when he moved into his Baltimore flat?
  3. What kinds of safeguards were provided for the families that participated in the Baltimore study?
  4. Read the two paragraphs concerning the lead removal methods. What ethical mistake was made during the removal process?
  5. Read Denisa’s story carefully. Why was Denisa’s mother advised to wash her front steps more carefully and to keep Denisa from putting her hands in her mouth? Use your own words and your common sense.
  6. How confident is the writer that Denisa’s low IQ is related to lead poisoning? How do you know?
  7. Why was a study that endangered children allowed to take place? Be brief.
  8. There are two social consequences of the failure to tackle the problem of lead based paints. They are:
  9. What is the similarity between the Baltimore study and the Tusgegee experiment? Use your own words.
  10. The Baltimore Toddler study was reviewed and deemed ethical by the ethics committee at Johns Hopkins. What was the probable reason why the committee reached such a conclusion?
  11. Which of the three ethical oversights was considered the most serious? Why? Do you agree?
  12. The writer poses the following question in the text: “Why did the scientists then proceed to test two ineffective lead abatement methods?” What is the answer?
Section 2
  1. In what way is the case of the children at the turn of the 20th century and certain factory workers similar? Both groups suffered ………………………………………………………………………….
  2. The US market was awash with lead containing products despite the international action against them for two reasons. They were ………………………………………………………………………..
  3. The writer states that “gut renovating the entire house solves the problem”. Why is such an extreme measure the only option?
  4. How realistic is the Center for Disease Control’s recommendation concerning acceptable levels of lead in the blood stream? How do you know?
  5. What might be a possible reason why black children were six times more likely to have elevated lead levels? Use your head to state a possible logical answer.
  6. Efforts were made to sweep the emerging problem of lead poisoning under the carpet by both the government and industry. What specific measure was taken by the former?
  7. What overall conclusion can be drawn from the three paragraphs detailing the measures taken by industry and the government to hush up the issue of lead poisoning?
  8. Why was the plan to “remove lead from the nation’s homes” shelved?
Section 3
  1. What is the misconception concerning public health programs?
  2. What does “this lesson” refer to in the phrase “Across the Channel, this lesson was not lost on the English…”?
  3. What two factors have been the driving force behind some of the most urgent public health programs?
  4. The writer states that “They probably weren’t right about everything but when it came to lead poisoning, they probably were”. Why does he feel this way? You will need to tweak the text and a word of warning: this is a hard question!
  5. The complete lack of interest in the issue of lead poisoning to date may have led to……………..
  6. An alternative route Chisolm and Farley could have taken is …………………………………………………..
Write a reaction essay concerning what you have read. Use the suggestions below:
In your introduction, introduce the problem and the article
In the first developmental paragraph, summarize the information. This is a long text and you need to write a single paragraph so be very careful. The points you should cover are as follows: the widespread use of lead based paints despite the international ban, the public outcry and the action against it by industry and government, continued neglect despite scientific data. You should have no specific examples in your summary.
In the second developmental paragraph, state your own reaction to all you have read.
In your conclusion discuss what can be done now.
This riveting and deeply distressing text highlights a problem I personally was not aware of. I read the text with absolute horror and disbelief as I am sure you will too. One point I must make here concerns the number of questions: I prepare my material mainly for self study and with that in mind, I like to cover the main points; plus this is a long text. However, a few former students who have tried out this task assure me that the length of the text and the number of questions are not a problem as the text is so interesting.
  1. Because there was no adequate federal program to deal with it.
  2. The landlord ( Polakoff) had been cited at least ten times in the past for violating Baltimore’s lead paint regulations and several former tenants would later sue him.
  3. Their homes would receive one of three types of lead removal and their children would be given regular blood tests ( to see if their lead levels rose or fell)
  4. No one told Max’s mother of the hot spots ( areas of lead paint that could shed dangerous dust)
  5. Possible answer: Because the researchers knew of the blood test results and didn’t want to exacerbate the situation.
  6. Quite confident; it is quite likely that in her (Denisa’s) case lead poisoning was the cause.
  7. The government almost invariably chose to protect the businesses that produced and marketed paint.
  8. Their nation (US) could have been more intelligent; their nation could have been safer; the change from would to could is due to the way the question has been asked.
  9. Possible answer: they were both unethical or they both endangered the health of the subjects.
  10. Research like the toddler study was necessary if affordable solutions to the problems of the poor were to be found.
  11. The third because the researchers almost certainly knew in advance that level 1 and level 2 abatement would not protect the children from poisoning.
  12. These men could not effectively resist the momentum of government indifference to the poor, pervasive racial prejudice and careless decision making that influenced government policy making throughout the lead poisoning crisis.
  13. Suffered / were exposed to lead poisoning
  14. The US was the largest producer in the world, the lead industries association had grown into a political force.
  15. Because it is almost impossible to get rid of (lead in any other way).
  16. Not acceptable because studies have found that even infinitesimally low levels down to 1 or 2 micrograms per deciliter can reduce a child’s IQ and impair her self control and ability to organize thoughts.
  17. More black children might have been living in slum housing. This idea should naturally pass through the mind of a reader as he reads. The question is here to make sure you think as you read.
  18. The government sponsored public health campaigns characterized lead poisoning as a behavioral problem of the poor they called “pica”.
  19. The lead industry lied to the Americans for decades and the government did nothing to stop it.
  20. It was opposed by the lead industry, realtors, landlords, insurance companies and even some pediatricians
  21. That they are a bureaucratic business
  22. The fact that Napoleon made public health a priority
  23. Activist pressure and fear of insipient unrest
  24. Because he agrees that the poor themselves need to have a voice in shaping programs that fight against lead poisoning. Careful: the agreement only concerns lead poisoning so you need to limit the answer.
  25. Chisolm and Farley feeling that they had no choice but to try to figure out how many corners they could cut.
  26. Working with communities to use research findings more creatively

Saturday, March 9, 2013


Airstrikes which are controlled from a ground station have become a major issue for many societies.There are different views  and opinion about drones.This matter is really a grave one.While opponents of these vehicles assert that drones cause people who are unsuspected or innocent to die, supporters of airstrikes prepound that unmanned vehicles can be used to kill specific targets or individuals.Despite the controversy and concern, these weapons have both advantages and disadvantages.
To get a consensus about the issue, we need to understand the difference between a manned aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles.Unmanned   aerial vehicles can be held in the air for an extended period of time , unlike a manned aircraft.Numerous advanced systems and technology working together make this  possible.Through the help of  satellites, visual images and flight data are received by the pilot who is at a ground station.
With regard to its advantages, in recent years, many societies have witnessed increasing terror events.The 9/11 attacks are counted as the most obvious example of terror events.Some international  jihadist movements are global, dispersed and sparse.Their  only  mission is to survive  and carry out their ideologies against the enemy.Plus, they want to increase their political influence among the populations  they  wish to control.By  carrying out  these attacks, the leaders of jihadist’s groups want to prove themselves  and  strike fear into their enemies.As a result of these movements, unmanned   aerial  vehicles  are seen  as the solution  for  ending  military operations.The  goal  is to counteract the enemy capable of resisting  through the use of force.In the case of attacks, innocents will be killed.This  is  obvious  but  the ultimate  aim is to minimize the number  of  innocent  deaths.
As far as unmanned  aerial  vehicles’  disadvantages  are  concerned,  they have  a serious  impact on many  people’s  lives.Since  the use  of  these weapons is  a process,  they can  make mistakes.As  a result  of a mistake, they can lead to violations of principles of  human rights.Furthermore, this  power  can be used for arbitrary  reasons.To illustrate, when  you target an individual  based  on your relationships, you will become  culpable.Therefore, this  idea makes the decision-maker both judge and  executioner  without due process.However, international  law requires  due process  for a target to be judged and  executed.Likewise, in the jihadist own perspective, unmanned aerial  vehicles are useful weapons for them because  the power of weapons allows  these groups to attract many societies and converts  as there is an increase the number of innocents who are killed.

In conclusion,the power  of  the enemy such as militans  or  jihadist groups is diffuse.The war  is limitless and endless.To avoid  war, this strategy may be a disincentive.Drones  or unmanned vehicles can decrease  war  for  a while but  eventually these groups  will recover
Mehmet Çelebi Remedial 2013


topic: the design of the universe-George Smoot                                                                                        26.02.2013

I will mention what happened at the begining, and then follow it up trying to understand it. When you look around, what do you see? For example, you see a home that is created by designers with the work of people, but you actually see that there is a lot of material already there, then it is reshaped in a certain form. Therefore, the questıon is how did that material get here? How did the universe begin and  get shaped.
The universe has about 100 billion galaxies. It is a very large number of galaxies. What kind of creative prosess and what kind of design produced the world like that? You imagine a time map. If the world is in the middle of the map, the moon is 2 light seconds away, the sun is 8 light minutes away, the nearest  40-50 stars are 10 light years away, the center of our own galaxy is 1000 light years away, the nearest big galaxy is 2 million light years away.That means if we take a photo from the nearest galaxy, we see the galaxy 2 million years ago.We are looking at hundreds of millions of years to a billion years with the Hubble Telescope.
The universe is almost a perfect sphere, but there are very tiny variations, and the universe goes from tiny variations to irregular galaxies and first stars to more advanced galaxies and solar systems. These variations give us secrets about the structure of space-time, and content of the universe, and how the universe started. Some mysterious process kicked off the universe at the beginning.After that, the universe underwent  a period of accelerating expansion and the universe expanded and cooled, then to the Dark Ages began. After that, the first stars turned on, and they envolved into galaxies, then they became  more expansive galaxies. Somewhere around this period is when our solar system started forming.It has been maturing up to the present time.
We have a model, and we can calculate it, and we can use it to make a design of what we think the universe really looks like. However, that design is sort of way beyond what our original imagination ever was.
Taha Yasin Posos
Pre-Intermediate V

Monday, March 4, 2013


      We all have memories which are strange and amazing. We can define memory as a huge library that can include an infinite amount of information, and changes constantly. In other words it migrates between the parts of the brain. It can be influenced by environment, age, genes, and other parts of the brain. Actually, all the parts of the brain play a role in memory but some parts have more effects on it. For instance, the neocortex updates our memory every night. It transfers some of the information that is captured during the day from short term memory to long term memory. Thus, we can still remember important events or objects which are transferred to long term memory several years later.

      The physical features of memory remind one of a GPS map. When each new instance of memorization occurs, a new network bridge is formed between the brain cells. If someone's brain links up more than one connection or a stronger bridge between two things such as names and faces, this information can be remembered for a long time. We can also improve our memories by using the same method. We should try to form a link between two or more things in order to keep them in our minds longer. Remembering  also depends on focusing, and the major point in focusing is  paying attention.

      Countless research is still continuing  about memory. We might learn more interesting qualities of memory in the future. I think the most important point is that we should protect our memories from harmful effects and we should try to keep them alive by practicing because remembering is our most valuable ability. 

                                                                                    Mehmet Furkan Polat 
                                                                                    Pre-Int V