Wednesday, April 30, 2014

LIBERAL ARTS OR EARLY SPECIALIZATION? “WHY I TEACH PLATO TO PLUMBERS”

Scott Samuelson states in his article in The Atlantic that “Liberal arts and the humanities aren't just for the elite. In the last paragraph of this superb text, he says and I quote:
I once had a janitor compare his mystical experiences with those of the medieval Sufi al-Ghazali’s. I once had a student of redneck parents—his way of describing them—who read both parts of Don Quixote because I used the word “quixotic.” A mother who’d authorized for her crippled son a risky surgery that led to his death once asked me with tears in her eyes, “Is Kant right that the consequences of an action play no role in its moral worth?” A wayward veteran I once had in Basic Reasoning fell in love with formal logic and is now finishing law school at Berkeley.
He goes on to claim that “The fire will always be sparked. Are we going to fan it, or try to extinguish it? Do you agree or is this an unnecessary luxury in the current times? Read the whole article and decide then write a response or reaction essay. Access the text by clicking below:

Tuesday, April 29, 2014

A STORY TO LISTEN TO AND WRITE ABOUT; RESPONSE ESSAY FICTION PODCAST: T. C. BOYLE READS DONALD BARTHELME


“Game” and “The School” are very striking short stories written by Donald Barthelme, a famous short story writer. These stories are read and discussed in the following podcast from The New Yorker magazine. Listen to the stories and the interview and write a reaction or response essay. The link is as follows:

A STORY TO LISTEN TO AND WRITE ABOUT; RESPONSE ESSAY FICTION PODCAST: AKHIL SHARMA READS “THE NIGHT IN QUESTION” BY TOBIAS WOLFF


Listen to the interview and the story carefully and write a reaction or response essay. This story is advanced in level and the task should be treated with respect. Here is the link:
http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/books/2014/04/fiction-podcast-akhil-sharma-reads-tobias-wolff.html

Monday, April 28, 2014

SOLITUDE VERSUS LONELINESS; COMPARISON AND CONTRAST ESSAY

If you check in a dictionary you will find that solitude and loneliness are two very different feelings although in both the person is basically alone. One promotes creativity, innovativeness, peace of mind and happiness while one leads to depression. Do your research and write an essay in which you compare and contrast solitude and loneliness.
Main differences tabulated:
·         “The difference between loneliness and solitude” http://onlinecounsellingcollege.tumblr.com/post/43801646073/the-difference-between-loneliness-and-solitude
Reading material to annotate for details
·         “What is solitude?” http://www.psychologytoday.com/collections/201105/solitude-vs-loneliness/what-is-solitude (a short little text)
·         “Easing your way out of loneliness” http://www.psychologytoday.com/collections/201105/solitude-vs-loneliness/how-escape-the-grip-loneliness (a short and simple text)
·         “Loneliness versus solitude” http://quirkyalone.net/index.php/book/sample-chapters/lonliness-vs-solitude/
Power Point presentation:
·         “Solitude and loneliness at Pepperdine University” http://prezi.com/zukolnietd52/solitude-and-loneliness-at-pepperdine-university/
Documentaries to watch and make notes on
·         “Sad, lonely Lucas”  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H5OktXU4MKs
·         “A Documentary” http://vimeo.com/82693292
·         “The great outdoors; the difference between solitude and loneliness” http://twistedsifter.com/videos/the-difference-between-loneliness-and-solitude/

OR, access the same video at: http://vimeo.com/86651195

WHAT IS YOGA? DEFINITION ESSAY / ADVANTAGES ESSAY

Yoga is a philosophy which is widely popular and is said to bring peace and good health to those who practice it but what exactly does it involve and what is the philosophy? Do your research and find out. Then write a definition essay / advantages essay. This means both what exactly Yoga is and its benefits should be dealt with in the development. If you think about it for a moment, you will agree that this is a very logical way to approach the topic. Have fun!
Familiarize yourself with the topic:
·         “How yoga changes your body starting the day you begin” http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/10/28/body-on-yoga_n_4109595.html
·         “Yoga, a basic understanding” http://www.slideshare.net/Ani77789/yoga-a-basic-understanding
·         “Yoga, a brief introduction” http://www.slideshare.net/Gudrun123/yoga-a-brief-introductionppt
Yoga: power point presentations
·         “Discover yoga breath by breath” http://prezi.com/ebm9opjaosnm/discover-yoga-breath-by-breath/
·         “Yoga prezi” http://prezi.com/6wupxehxolbm/yoga-prezi/
·         “Yoga” http://prezi.com/atuglulvwaje/yoga/
Reading material to annotate
·         “What is yoga, really?” Make sure to continue from the bottom of the page to related links. http://www.yogananda-srf.org/What_Is_Yoga,_Really_.aspx#.U1d27FW5SYw
·         “What is yoga? Definition of yoga and six branches of yoga” http://www.abc-of-yoga.com/beginnersguide/whatisyoga.asp
·         “The meaning and purpose of yoga” http://www.swamij.com/yoga-meaning.htm
·         “Benefits of yoga” http://yoga.about.com/od/beginningyoga/a/benefits.htm
·         “Benefits of yoga” http://life.gaiam.com/article/benefits-yoga
Videos to watch and make notes on

Sunday, April 27, 2014

SPEAK FOR YOURSELF

“We talk to ourselves to stay motivated,tame unruly emotions, plan for the future and even maintain a sense of self”
By: Ferris Jabr
Published: Scientific American Mind, January /February 2014 issue
Access this article by copy pasting the folowing: http://www.nature.com/scientificamericanmind/journal/v25/n1/full/scientificamericanmind0114-45.html 
Level of Difficulty: ****

BEFORE YOU READ
·         Do you speak to yourself?
·         What form does this inner speech take? Encouragement? An expression of belief in your innate abilities or disparagement?
·         What effect does such self talk have?
QUESTIONS
1.       Read the first two paragraphs of the text. The writer needn’t have worried about his outburst because:
·         He is a functional neurotic
·         Children regularly talk to themselves
·         He is self obsessed
·         Some adults talk silently to themselves
·         All of the above
·         None of the above
·         Other: please specify
2.       Read the description of inner speech. Which of the following instances are more likely to lead to inner speech?
·         Your boss asks you if you agree with him; you want to remain in his good books
·         You have bought a new flat and walk around it thinking of interior design
·         You are a pole vaulter. You are making your third and last attempt to clear the jump
·         You are looking through evening dresses for an important public function at an important fashion house.
·         All of the above
·         None of the above
·         Other: please specify
3.       If someone keeps saying “I knew I would fail; I am a useless waste of space” continuously his inner speech is considered flawed because ……………………………….and it has to be…………
4.       How does the writer reach the following conclusion: to know yourself, you have to talk to yourself?
5.       The private speech of children:
·         Has a social function
·         Communicates the thoughts of the child
·         Is a soliluguy
·         All of the above
·         None of the above
·         Other: please specify
6.       On reading Vygotsky’s studies it would be correct / incorrect / misleading to conclude that there is (a) positive / negative / no correlation between the amount of private speech and the development of problem solving skills in young people.
7.       Russell Hurlburt and Andrew Erwing’s experiments have ptoved that self talk serves the function of ……………………………………………………
8.       Positive self talk has been found not to be closely linked to:
·         Courage
·         Belief in oneself
·         Daring
·         Fortitude
·         Risk taking
·         All of the above
9.       The experiment with the 24 rugby players proves that……………………………………..
10.   In what way was the private speech of the rugby players and the novice volleyball players different?
11.   Read Claude Scott Moss’ story of the stroke he suffered and its consequences. This story proves that………………………………………….. (There are two answers; find both)
12.   After reading Philip Kendall’s experimwent it becomes obvious that continued negative self talk is directly responsible for…………………………………………
13.   From the paragraph discussing Fernyhough’s ideas, we understand that the tables can be turned on ………………………..through……………………….and………………………………………….
14.   James Russell and Winster’s experiments prove that…………………………………………….
15.   What physical explanation has been offered to AVH’s?
16.   From the example of Helen Keller, we understand that inner speech is vital in order to………………………………………………………………………………..
17.   From Jill Bolt Taylor’s story, it is possible to draw an important general conclusion about the self:……………………………………………………………………………….
WRITING TASK
On completing the reading task, write an essay in which you clarify what exactly inner speech is and how it benefits people. It is suggested that you make a general introduction about mental and psycholgical wellbeing and personality development. Follow this with a discussion of what exactly inner speech is and then write a few more paragraphs discussing the benefits. Round of your essay with a conclusion where you write a restatement or reiterate the importance of positive self talk as opposed to negative self talk. What kind of essay have you written? You have written a definition plus advantages essay and this is perfectly fine.
SPEAK FOR YOURSELF KEY AND TEACHER’S NOTES
This is a very comforting text in that the reader discovers his secret habit of talking to himself has survival value. The text discusses the power of self talk; both positive and negative and as a result, is fascinating to read. The text also allows for some good comprehension questions; quite tough ones I may add and an essay task which will hopefully get students thinking outside the box.
  1. None of the above; because everyone talks to themselves both out loud and silently
  2. 1 and 3 will definitely involve words and can be classified as inner speech. The other two are more likely to involve pictures.
  3. It is unnecessarily critical (stoking the black flames of depression); editted
  4. Because inner speech stitches together the many threads of sensory experience into the tapestry of self awareness
  5. 3
  6. Incorerct; positive
  7. Self regulation
  8. 5
  9. Inner speech improved athletic performance. The answer is at the end of the previous paragraph.
  10. The latter spoke detailed instructions out loud; the latter made explicit reminders to themselves of how to approach the goal or shoot the free throw.
  11. (Beyond helping people regulate their behevior in the present) Inner speech is essential for learning from the past and planing the future; inner speech may be so fundamental to mental time travel that if it disappears, so does our understanding of before and after.
  12. Worse anxiety
  13. Negative inner speech (or verbal thoughts), cognitive behavior therapy,mindfulness meditation.
  14. Children with autism can overcome the mental hurdle of having to silently repeat detailed instructions in their mind when allowed to speak out loud to themselves.
  15. The electrical signals travelling between the Broca and the Wernicke’s areas are weaker than average during inner speech of people who experience AVH.
  16. Maintain a sense of self; have self awareness
  17. When our mind shuts up we disappear



Thursday, April 24, 2014

THE MYTH OF ‘I AM BAD AT MATHS’; MULTIPLE TEXT READING INTO WRITING ACTIVITY


It is believed by many experts that maths instruction, which could be so beneficial in countless ways, is basically flawed preventing the development of valuable cognitive skills, creativity and innovativeness. Many have attacked standard teaching methods and blamed them for perpetrating feelings of inferiority concerning maths. Do the three reading tasks in this selection to discover what exactly they claim and write about the issue.
BEFORE YOU READ
·         ·  Math isn't hard, it's a language | Randy Palisoc | TEDxManhattanBeach
How you can be good at math, and other surprising facts about learning | Jo Boaler | TEDxStanford https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3icoSeGqQtY
TEXT ONE: 5-YEAR-OLDS CAN LEARN CALCULUS
By: Luba Vangelova
Published: The Atlantic; March 2014
Level of difficulty: ***
QUESTIONS
1.       Read the description of current maths education in paragraph one. What is the problem with it?
2.       What conclusion can be drawn from the information in paragraph 3? Where else could this sentence have been positioned?
3.       What is it that ‘turns many kids off maths at an early age’?
4.       What conclusion can be drawn from the fact that there are so many’ maths grief stories’?
·         Droujkova’s views are probably correct
·         The disregard for the enjoyable world of maths is wrong
·         The hierarchical sequence of maths instruction is wrong
·         All of the above
·         None of the above
·         Other please specify
5.       What is natural maths and why does it work? It is a system of teaching maths which…………………………………………………………………………………………………
6.       Droujkova feels maths education would be greatly improved if people accepted the fact that……………………………………………………………………………………………………
7.  Compare the two sets of examples Droujkova provides. In what way is building a house with Lego blocks superior to doing 100 two digit addition problems? Now look back at the section again and try and name an activity from your life that is simple and hard (like doing 100 two digit addition problems) and another that is easy and complex (like building with lego blocks). What do you gain from each activity? What are the pluses and minuses for learning? Discuss.
8.       Read the description of Moebius Noodles carefully. What is the superiority of this system as compared to the standard system we currently have?
9.       What does the phrase “This is what mathematicians do” refer to? There are two possible answers.
·         They preserve ……………………………………………….and they……………
10.   The example of the rhombus is included in the text to support the idea that……………………….
11.   The advantage of maths circles is that they enable children to witness………………………………..
12.   The established maths curriculum is strongly opposed to ………………………………………….in their learning experience.
13.   Parents and teachers must stop bullying and badgering children and try…………………instead.
14.   Droujkova believes that the two standard criticisms leveled at this new approach to maths education are due to………………………………………………………………………………………………………
15.   Droujkova states that current a standard math education is all about adults prescribing…………………………………………………………………………………
16.   How can the know-how necessary for the new approach to maths teaching be made readily available? Through………………..,………………………………plus……………………………………….
TEXT TWO: THE STEREOTYPES THAT DISTORT HOW AMERICANS TEACH AND LEARN MATHS
By: Joe Boaler
Published: The Atlantic, November 2013
Level of difficulty: ***
QUESTIONS
1.       What two conclusions can we draw from paragraph one?
2.       Having read the first two paragraphs, you know what kind of an article this is in style. It is:…
3.       Broader maths is more popular and more conducive to success because……………………………
4.       The widespread procedure execution in maths has resulted in……………………………………………
5.       Because the approach described by the writer brings the possibility of maths education to everyone, it could be described as …………………………………………………………………………………….
6.       We owe the emergence of the maths underclass to the view that…………………………which is aggravated by………………………………….Couple this with ……………………………….and you have a problem.
7.       How can reaction to the course the writer taught at Stanford be described?
8.       What examples of problems in maths teaching does the writer emphasize?
9.       Study the two published test questions. The writer emphasizes the superiority of ………………… because solving this requires …………………………..and……………………………………………..
10.   Why don’t employers need people who can calculate fast? Use your own words.
11.   The change in the approach to maths education will bring greater success at work too thanks to the new focus on …………………………………… and…………………………………………………………….
12.   Teachers and parents should be encouraging students to………………………..and not be focusing on…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
13.   The writer feels ……………………….and………………………..should be removed from the curricula. He also feels ………………………………………………..can’t help achieve modern goals.
TEXT THREE: THE MYTH OF ‘I AM BAD AT MATH’
By: Miles Kimball and Noah Smith
Published: The Atlantic; October 28 2013
Level of difficulty: ***
QUESTIONS
1.       The belief in math people has both immediate consequences by…………………………………and also far reaching consequences as it helps support and feed the misconception of…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2.       Which of the following best expresses the main idea of paragraph two?
·         Maths ability is innate as proved by the case of Terence Tao
·         Talent is not necessary for high school maths
·         Although math ability is partly innate, this is not as important as personal effort and character.
·         All of the above
·         None of the above
·         Other: please specify
3.       Which of the subtitles below would you assign to paragraph 3?
·         Prepare and become a math person
·         To be math people, believe in yourselves
·         Forget talent, think self-fulfilling prophecy
·         Parents, we need your help
4.       Read from “The idea that math ability…” to the end of the paragraph beginning “The result”. Now select a subtitle for this section from the list below:
·         The nature / nurture controversy
·         The fatalistic versus the non-fatalistic approach
·         Intelligence and how to get it
·         Dweck and his research
5.       Read Lisa Carol Dweck and her colleagues’ experiment carefully to the end. The psychologists set out to test the effects of a fatalistic / non-fatalistic / both a fatalistic and anon-fatalistic approach to education. They discovered a(n) optimistic / pessimistic view produced success through hard work, whereas a(n) optimistic / pessimistic view had the reverse effect.
6.       According to the text there is (a) negative / positive/ no correlation between hard work and increases in intelligence.
7.       Which sentence in the paragraph beginning “So why…” best expresses the main idea?
8.       What conclusion can be drawn from the comparison of US children to those in Germany, UK and Sweden?
9.       Which sentence in the paragraph beginning “We believe” best expresses the danger of giving up on maths?
10.   What is the writer referring to when he says “We believe this has to stop”?
·         Americans must stop going through life terrified of equations and mathematical symbols
·         They recoil from anything that looks like maths and so they exclude themselves from quite a few lucrative career opportunities.
·         The whole paragraph
11.   Read the remainder of the text and decide which of the qualities below are associated with East Asians and which with Americans.
·         Studiousness
·         Short holidays
·         Despondency
·         Perseverance
·         Determination
·         Resentment in face of criticism
12.   Which two qualities does the writer feel should be valued more highly in math education?
13.   Which major concern underlies the problems related to maths education described in the text?
WRITING TASK
Use all three texts and your own experience to describe how mind sets could be changed and more people could learn to benefit from and enjoy maths. Remember there is a lot of opposition to all this so justify your solutions. What kind of essay will you end up writing? You will end up writing a problem solution / argumentative essay but that is just fine so no worries.
THE MYTH OF ‘I AM BAD AT MATHS’; MULTIPLE TEXT READING INTO WRITING ACTIVITY KEY AND TEACHER’S NOTES
This wonderful threesome slot into place beautifully to highlight the negative short and long term impact of current practices involved in teaching maths. It is an issue close to everyone’s heart. The texts lay bare all the mistakes that are made with forceful arguments and suggests revolutionary approaches to teaching maths. From my point of view, the texts provide another bonus too: they gave me the opportunity to ask a variety of careful reading questions; a wider selection than I usually have the opportunity to write. The writing task is challenging and should not be timed.
TEXT ONE: 5-YEAR-OLDS CAN LEARN CALCULUS, KEY
  1. It has nothing to do with how people think, how children grow and learn or how mathematics is built.
  2. Calculations kids are forced to do are often so developmentally inappropriate the experience amounts to torture; at the beginning of paragraph 3.
  3. Little manipulations of numbers
  4. All of the above
  5. Hinges on harnessing students’ powerful and surprisingly productive instincts for playful exploration to guide them on a personal journey through the subject / Games and free play are efficient ways for children to learn.
  6. The complexity of the idea and the difficulty of doing it are separate, independent dimensions.
  7. Building a house with Lego blocks creates a rich and social mathematical experience that is complex yet easy. The parenthesis may be included.
  8. This approach gives you deep roots so the canopy of the high abstraction does not wither whereas the current system helps with test taking and mundane exercises but does nothing for logical thinking and problem solving.
  9. A playful aspect along the entire journey; play with abstract ideas but still play
  10. People are different and people need to approach mathematics differently
  11. Meaningful people doing meaningful things with maths and enjoying the experience
  12. Giving children a voice
  13. Inspiring them
  14. (rather)Deep chasms between different philosophies of education (or more broadly differences in the futures we pave for kids)
  15. What mathematics education they select or make for the kids
  16. Online hubs, online courses, support
TEXT TWO:THE STEREOTYPES THAT DISTORT HOW AMERICANS TEACH AND LEARN MATHS, KEY
  1. Mathematics education in the US is broken; we need to change the way we teach math
  2. Argumentative
  3. Mathematical problems that need thought, connection making and even creativity are more engaging to the students of all levels…
  4. Fewer students contributing and lower achievement
  5. Mathematical democratization
  6. Math is hard, uninteresting and accessible only to nerds; harsh stereotypical thinking; teaching practices
  7. Transformative
  8. The maths that people need in the 21st century and the math they spend most of their time on in class: computing by hand
  9. Second, justification and reasoning
  10. There are machines to do that
  11. Justification / reasoning
  12. To deeply understand things and their relations to each other; speed
  13. Redundant content; obsole content; stereotypical thinking and teaching
TEXT THREE: THE MYTH OF ‘I AM BAD AT MATH’, KEY
  1. By hamstringing your own career; inborn genetic ability
  2. The third
  3. The third
  4. The first is too general, the last is too narrow, the third is way off. The answer is two
  5. Both fatalistic and non-fatalistic, optimistic, pessimistic
  6. Positive
  7. Math is the great mental bogeyman of an unconfident America
  8. Americans’ native ability is just as good as anyone’s but we fail to capitalize on this ability through hard work.
  9. While we don’t think education isn’t a cure all for inequality, we definitely believe that in an increasingly automated workplace, Americans who give up on math are selling themselves short.
  10. The first. He doesn’t say ‘all this has to stop’
  11. Despondency and resenting criticism: US; the rest East Asia
  12. Persistence and grit
  13. Moving away from a culture of hard work…






Wednesday, April 23, 2014

FREEING UP INTELLIGENCE


“A preoccupation with scarcity diminishes IQ and self control. Simple measures can help us counteract this cognitive tax”
By: Sendhil Mullainathan and Eldar Shafir
Published: Scientific American Mind, January / February 2014
Level of Difficulty: ****
Access this article by copy pasting the following:http://www.nature.com/scientificamericanmind/journal/v25/n1/full/scientificamericanmind0114-58.html 
BEFORE YOU READ
·         How do you imagine scarcity impacts IQ? Can you think of any examples?
·         Do the underprivileged have lower IQ’s? If so why?
·         How do you imagine scarcity diminishes self control?
If you think you have been able to predict the content of the text, think again. You are in for some surprises.
QUESTIONS
1.       After the university entrance exam in Turkey this year, some students complained about the noise from demolition going on next to the school where they took the exam. Will their grades suffer? Why?
2.       Even if you have an ideal work environment, concentration could still be difficult due to…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3.       You go to work after showering together with your partner and having breakfast together. Would reminiscing about it prove a major distraction? Why? You will need to tweak the text.
4.       Why exactly is scarcity such a great obstacle? Because …………………………………………………………
5.       If a waitress who is doing extra shifts to pay the rent forgets a specific dietary requirement, what component of mental function has failed her?
6.       The writers and their graduate student picked out a hypothetical story for the subjects in the New Jersey Mall experiment. Why was this particular hypothetical story selected?
 What effect did they expect the story to have? To cause……………………………………….to emerge.
7.        After the results of the test were studied, it was found that there was a negative / positive correlation was found to exist between fluid intelligence scores and focus on scarcity.
8.       The surprising conclusion that can be drawn from the comparison of the results of the New Jersey test and the sleep deprivation test is that sleep deprivation ………………………………………
9.       What does “This cognitive penalty” refer to?
10.   What does “this connection” in the sentence “A number of experiments have vividly illustrated this connection” refer to?
11.   Which of the following nibbles will be popular with a teacher grading essays on a final exam at university? You can select as many as necessary.
·         Walnuts and hazelnuts
·         Chocolate chip cookies
·         Apples
·         A Mars bar
12.   What conclusion can be drawn from the experiment with the Australian students?
There is a ……………………correlation between being cognitively loaded and composure.
13.   The second New Jersey experiment proved that ……………………………….is also affected by scarcity.
14.   Why were sugar cane farmers and not regular Indian farmers picked for the study?
15.   The overall conclusion of all the experiments discussed thus far is that…………………………..
16.   Many would say that it is hunger that negatively impacts performance when dieting. Are they right or not? Why?
17.   On reading the paragraph beginning “The size” it becomes obvious that measures are necessary to ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
18.   It is implied in the text that problems related to scarcity are…………………………………………………..
WRITING TASK
Having made notes on the text write an essay in which introduce scarcity and discuss ways in which its effects may be counteracted. Use the plan below:
In your introduction, discuss the pace of modern life, daily hassles, the continual need to multitask and concerns for the future. Introduce the concept of preoccupation and how it interferes with focus. Introduce scarcity.
In your first developmental paragraph, discuss scarcity and bandwidth. Explain how they interact and remember to provide your own examples.
In your second developmental paragraph, discuss measures that can be taken to counteract scarcity: scheduling family time, eating properly, taking care of health, sports, sticking to a routine, signing up for automatic bill payment and the like.
In your conclusion, write a restatement.
FREEING UP INTELLIGENCE KEY AND TEACHER’S NOTES
This interesting text tells the biological story of how preoccupation and inner or outer distractions affect cognitive skills. We always knew that this was the case but not the connections and how it actually works. Like all texts about problems, there are solutions too and plenty of opportunity to ask some good careful reading questions.
1.       Yes, they will because of the powerful effect of even slight distraction.
2.       Noisy trains of thought / OR, disruptions that come from within
3.       No it wouldn’t because internal disruptions stem from scarcity and there is no scarcity here.
4.       It constantly draws us back to that urgent unmet goal and taxes our bandwidth and our most fundamental capacities.
5.       Executive control
6.       Because it was realistic and very likely got them thinking about their own financial concerns
The all too real non-hypothetical thinking about scarcity
7.       Positive
8.       Has a smaller effect
9.       The fact that the same person has fewer IQ points when he or she is preoccupied by scarcity (than when not)
10.   Reduced executive function will hamper self control.
11.   Chocolate chip cookies and Mars bars
12.   Negative
13.   Compulsivity
14.   So as to be able to study the same farmers when they are rich and poor and know that there is nothing specific about the preharvest and postharvest months.
15.   The poor do have lower effective capacity than those who are well off not because they are less capable but rather because part of their mind is captured by scarcity.
16.   No it is not; it is concerns about dieting because dieting is a form of scarcity
17.   Manage and cultivate bandwidth despite pressures to the contrary brought on by scarcity.
18.   Increasing